Warrior Women of Ireland

Irish mythology is riddled with powerful women, yet they are quite an enigma. On the one hand, we have feisty Queens like Medb, fearsome Goddesses like the Morrigan, gifted healers like Airmid, female smiths like Brigid, respected Druidesses like Bodhmall, and knowledgeable lawgivers like Brigid Brethach. On the other, we have the helpless heroines such as Etain, Deirdre, and Grainne, who seemingly did little but lure men with their beauty into tragedy and catastrophe.

We already know from the Brehon Laws that in ancient Ireland, women enjoyed far greater freedoms than those elsewhere. A woman could enjoy equal status with her husband in marriage; she had the right to divorce him if he did not fulfil his marital obligations, and if so, she was entitled to take with her all her own possessions and half of their joint property, plus a portion for damages. Women were also entitled to enter all the same professions as men.

Which meant that ancient Ireland had its fair share of warrior women, and some of them were quite kickass, by all accounts!

Now before we go any further, a warning. You know how much I love researching. I can get quite lost in it at times. Even so, when it comes to researching women in Irish mythology, there’s a bit of a black hole. You might assume that society was quite patriarchal, yet we know from texts such as the Brehon Law, and a few others that still survive, such as the Cattle Raid of Cooley, that this is not so. At least, not to the extent you might have thought.

Warrior Women of Ireland | Aliisaacstoryteller

The stories were all written down by Christian monks, and without offending any Christians reading this blog, it’s a fact that they did alter stories, and even earlier written texts, to fit in with their beliefs. The Danann and the Sidhe, for example, were seen as demons and dangerous; and women in the old stories were either ignored, left out completely, or re-written as demure, beautiful, mindless voiceless creatures whose sole aim in life was to marry, have babies, serve the men in her life and God.

So for example, we have few Queens, because powerful women were not tolerated. Key women remain nameless, such as Etain’s mortal mother, who swallowed Etain when in her butterfly incarnation, she fell into her cup of wine. She was known only as ‘the wife of’. This treatment of women in Irish mythology is quite common. And frustrating. Such details were just not seen as important.

And so I have come across references to warrior women, but can’t tell you anything about them, because they were dropped from existence. Often, even really key women, as you will find out, are only mentioned in relation to the male hero of the tale, rather than in her own right.

There are two famous bands of warriors in Irish mythology; Fionn mac Cumhall’s Fianna, and the Red Branch Knights of Ulster.

The women of the Fianna were known as banféinní, meaning ‘female warrior-hunter’. It’s not clear whether they had their own battalion, or whether they were ranked alongside their male counterparts, but I suspect it to be the latter.

There are not many women  warriors mentioned by name in the stories of the Fianna. Ailbhe Gruadbrecc is one; her name means Ailbhe (Al-va) ‘of the freckled cheeks’, and she was a daughter of High King Cormac mac Art. It is thought she was a wife, or lover, of Fionn mac Cumall, one of Ireland’s greatest legendary heroes, but died after only a year of them being together.

One might assume that she died in childbirth, being a young woman, but I suspect that as a warrior, she was more likely to have died either in battle, or on a hunting expedition. It was also said of her that she was ‘the third best woman who ever laid with a man’. Nice way to be remembered! Despite being the High King’s daughter, and married to Fionn, she clearly wasn’t important enough to bother mentioning the manner of her passing. Creadue/ Creidne was the name of a another female warrior in the Fianna about whom I could find out absolutely nothing.

Interestingly, Fionn’s incredible military and hunting success can be attributed to two women. As a child, his care was entrusted to his aunt Bodhmal and another woman named Liath Luachra. They disappeared with him into the forests of the Slieve Bloom mountans to keep him safe from his father’s killers.

Bodhmal was Fionn’s father’s sister, a Druidess and warrior. Liath Luachra was a shadowy warrior-woman, skilled in training men for battle and hunting. Her name means ‘the grey one of Luchair’. So here we have a fine example of two high-born women of skill so exceptional, they made their charge into a famous hero, and yet all we know about them is their names.

I have found no reference at all to women serving in the Red Branch Knights; these were the men of another great Irish legendary hero, Cuchullain. He was a killer and a womaniser. Men wanted to be him (or kill him), and women wanted to be with him. Yet there is almost no other nuance to his personality, save one; he didn’t kill women.

Of course, Cuchullain is most famous for opposing the war efforts of Queen Medb of Connacht. The Cattle Raid of Cooley is one of the most enduring and best loved of Irish mythological stories. I have mentioned Medb loads of times in this blog, so I’m not going to go into any great detail here.

Suffice it to say that she went to war over possession of a bull, in order that she could claim her husband, Aillil, did not possess more wealth than her. I guess she had a pretty big ego, that she was prepared to risk so many lives for her pride; either that, or she was made to look like an evil cow (sorry, pardon the pun), an example of what can happen when women get into power.

What I love about her story though, is how earthy it is. It holds nothing back. For example, she had many husbands and lovers, and was said to require 30 men a day to satisfy her sexual appetite, if her lover Fergus wasn’t around. I guess virility was linked with power and strength, even among women. Even her menstrual cycle is mentioned;

“Then her issue of blood came upon Medb and she said: ‘Fergus, cover the retreat of the men of Ireland that I may pass my water’. ‘By my conscience’ said Fergus, ‘It is ill-timed and it is not right to do so’. ‘Yet I cannot but do so’ said Medb, ‘for I shall not live unless I do’… Medb passed her water and it made three great trenches in each of which a household can fit. Hence the place is called Fúal Medba (Medb’s piss). “

Táin Bó Cúailnge from the Book of Leinster

As well as directing the battle, making decisions on military strategy, deals and alliances (which often included the offer of her ‘friendly thighs’), it seems Medb was also involved in the actual fighting, as Cuchullain tells his physician of a spear wound she gave him.

Yet again, we find that a famous male hero was trained by a woman. Scathach (Ska-ha) was a female warrior who had a military training academy, Dún Scáith meaning ‘fortress of shadows’ on the Isle of Skye. Doesn’t sound very inviting, does it? And indeed, the only way Cuchullain can enter is by leaping across a deep ravine, thus risking death. He makes it, however, proving himself worthy.

Students travelled far and wide to train under her. Cuchullain had many adventures whilst he was there, including becoming the lover of Uathach, Scathach’s daughter after breaking her fingers… don’t ask! When Aoife, Scathach’s sister and rival threatens her, Cuchullain fights Aoife in single combat. Clearly, there is no stigma in military combat with a woman.

When he defeats her, the great warrior is so turned on by her battle skills, that he spares her life if she sleeps with him. If we’re honest here, it was rape at knife-point… nothing heroic about that. Subsequently, she becomes pregnant with his son, Connla. Connla’s story is tragic and beautiful, one of my favourite legends, but I’ll not tell it here. It needs its own page.

When Cuchullain completes his training, he returns to Ulster to claim Emer as his bride. He kills her father, and carries her off in triumph, only to be confronted by an army led by another warrior woman, Scenmed, Emer’s sister or aunt, who attempt unsuccessfully to rescue her.

Nessa, Queen of Ulster, was another fiery and scheming warrior woman. She deceived Fergus out of his throne and installed her son Conchobar upon it, whereupon Fergus went to Connacht to join Medb and became her lover. She was originally called Assa meaning ‘gentle’. When her foster-family are ruthlessly murdered, she forms her own band of 27 fianna to track down the killer, and changes her name to Ní-assa, meaning ‘not gentle’. And if that’s not kickass, I don’t know what is.

Muirisc was a lesser known female warrior. She was the daughter of Úgaine Mór, known as Hugony the Great, who was the 66th High King of Ireland, according to the Annals. She had 22 brothers and 2 sisters, and her father, being fair-minded, divided Ireland into 25 portions allotting one to each of his children.

This arrangement was said to have lasted 300 years, until the provinces were established by Medb’s father, Eochu Feidlech. Muirisc’s domain extended over Mag Muirisce in Co Mayo, and her Dun lay beneath the slopes of Cruachan Aigli, the Conical Mountain, later to be called Croagh Patrick. She was a sea-captain and a warrior, famed for her bold and daring deeds.

Of course everyone has heard of the Morrigan, the triple aspect female deity said to preside over war-mongery, strife and sovereignty. She was said to have flown over the battle field in the form of a crow, crying harsh encouragement to her men, and striking fear into the hearts of the enemy. I suspect she was pretty nifty with a  weapon, too.

I’d particularly like to mention Macha at this point. Sometimes, she is mentioned as one of the Morrigan sisterhood, sometimes not. She was the wife of Nuada Argetlam, who led the invasion of the Tuatha de Danann against the Fir Bolg to claim Ireland. She participated in both battles, and was finally killed as she defended her fallen husband from the Fomori giant-king, Balor of the Evil Eye. That’s devotion for you.

Finally, I couldn’t draw this post to an end without mentioning Brigid. Brigid was the Goddess of Spring, and is associated with wisdom, excellence, perfection, high intelligence, poetic eloquence, blacksmithing, healing ability, and druidic knowledge. She was particularly well loved for her kindness and gentleness.

For me, she is the epitome of mythological womanhood; not only did she embody all the much sought after female attributes, including fertility as the Goddess presiding over Spring, but she could conduct herself with skill and aplomb in the forge. Not only could the girl forge a sword, but she could wield it like a maniac too; her skill in warfare is often overlooked in favour of her more ladylike ones.

So there you have it; equality of the sexes on the battlefields of Irish mythology. Who would have thought it?

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81 Comments on “Warrior Women of Ireland

  1. I just wanted to say I really loved reading this post. As a lover of mythology I was frustrated when I picked up Irish mythology that parts of it were modified in certain ways (like druids were evil, etc.) but I am very glad to see someone who has found a way to get around those changes and has found a way through to the original myths. 🙂
    You made some awesome points about warrior women in Irish mythology, and I am glad you mentioned how awesome they were, and even parts of their myths that I hadn’t known about before. And even an Irish goddess I didn’t know about and now want to find the myths of.
    I cannot express how excited I am to have found your blog! And I am looking forward to receiving your posts in my feed.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hi Quinley, thank you for your lovely comments! 😍 That was just what I needed… I have neglected the blog this past year, as I completed my final year at uni, and then found myself in difficult personal circumstances. However, I have been psyching myself up to starting again, and your enthusiasm is very infectious… if people want more Irish mythology, then I should supply it! 😄 I have an idea for my first post of 2020, and I’d really like to continue and develop the series on women in Irish myth. Any requests?

      Liked by 1 person

    • I read your short story and left a comment, but it put me down as ‘anonymous’… just wanted you to know it was me. 😊


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  4. I would love to know your research sources, love the blog


  5. I would love to know your research sources for this blog on powerful Irish women?


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  7. The career of Muirisc prefigures that of Gráinne Ní Mhaille. Both were warriors and sea captains; both centered their enterprises at Clew Bay.

    Liked by 1 person

      • Ali, this is a general problem with the study of Irish mythology and proto-history.
        The sources are few and often contradictory. Look at the story of Nessa iníon Eochaid.
        Even the identity of her father is disputed. Is it Eochaid, king of Ulaid or Cathbad?
        Some versions of her story have Cathbad as her grandfather? And the father of Conchobar?
        Yet, Nessa leads a fianna against Cathbad and his fianna?
        The stories of Nessa, Muirisc, Aoife, Maeve and the rest of warrior daughters of mother Éiru
        have been told and retold by many storytellers from all parts of Holy Ireland, always giving a locale flavor to each story.
        This is why you are important to those of us who enjoy Irish mythology and history.
        You are our bard.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Well that was unexpected… thank you for the beautiful compliment. I wish I deserved it! But yes, the stories are full of contradiction and ambiguity. Part of its charm! 😉 But frustrating if you like things to be black and white. I’ve learned that even accepted history is never that, just versions and interpretations of the truth. But, clearly you know much more than me about these things, why aren’t you writing about them yourself?


          • Ali:
            Are you suggesting that after boring college students for thirty years I should take the show on the road?

            Liked by 1 person

            • I lectured at South Suburban College. South Suburban College is a community college. A community college, sometimes referred to as a junior college, specializes in Freshman and Sophomore level classes. The subjects I taught were European History, American History, and Cultural Anthropology. I also taught Geography. I have degrees in both History and Anthropology. My knowledge of Geography was based on my military experience.

              I have not published a book.

              I have contributed articles to two military-oriented encyclopedias and an article on the influence of Confucianism on the French Enlightenment.

              Retirement allows me to delve into the beliefs and lifeways of my Irish ancestors.

              Slán agus beannacht!

              Celebrate Samhain!


            • Ah, you are a military man! I served in the Royal Air Force myself, air traffic control, seems like another lifetime. A wonderful experience, but military life was not really for me. I never saw action. In those days, women were not sent into conflict areas. It’s different now, of course, and rightly so. I have to say, I was a great shot though; my sons think I should have been a sniper, but I can’t even kill a spider! 😁 I see you are a very learned man, I bet your students loved you! I really appreciate your interest and input into my blog.


            • I served in the U. S. Army Security Agency, a branch of military intelligence. I was trained as a translator. My language was Mandarin Chinese and my duty station was in the Far East.


  8. Ali you do Irish mythology like no other, and to tackle the beauty of those Irish women warriors is just what I’d expect from you. And while Brigid, the Goddess of Spring, seems like the logical choice for such a lady to melt my heart, my curiosity is piqued with the loyalty of Macha 🙂 Great post ~ great writing.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Ah… thank you Dalo, you are much too kind. I think those women should be remembered and appreciated from time to time, their role, so much as we can piece together was quite significant, and their stories deserve to be told. I’m glad you enjoyed reading about them. Interesting that you picked Macha, she and her husband Nuada were quite an enigmatic couple, in my opinion… worthy of a post of their own, I think… thanks for your lovely words. Hope all is well with you. 😊


  9. Well, let’s hear it for the girls, Ali. Thanks for writing this after I asked the question about Irish Women warriors in last week’s post. I’m sure many of these women (especially the one with 22 brothers and two sisters) would have scared the living daylights out of any man. We’re lucky that some of the histories have survived and it’s so very nice to read that equality for women was around all those years ago. I would never have thought it possible to hear that women would train men to fight back then. Good for them.


  10. A great post, Ali! You know how much I love warrior women 🙂 The Celts and the Vikings, it seems, had no problem with women warriors – and as someone who’s had fighting experience, I would rate women as far more vicious than men during combat 😀 Yes, no offence to any Christians reading but those old priests were responsible for so much history and culture being lost, both here and in the New World – it’s a real sadness. At least traces of their stories remain, and you telling them means these women won’t be lost forever to history and legend.


  11. Thank you for this post, it is fascinating the warrior women. I`m going to risk getting my head chopped off by defenders of the Romans here but, between them and Christianity, women were put in a place where we haven’t quite crawled out of yet. The Morrigan was always one of my favourite Goddesses and I have written many tales about her, I resonate with her and have done since I was a child. Loved this post, more, more, more, please.


  12. Your post just shows that the Celts and the Gael had no problem with women of power. Boudicca was happily accepted as Queen of the Iceni, and the warriors had no problem following her into battle.
    xxx Gigantic Hugs Ali xxx

    Liked by 1 person

  13. Ah okay the Ailbhe and Ailbhe confusion… Ailbhe (Cormac’s daughter) did marry Fionn, and I think also died in a battle. Ailbhe (not Cormac’s daughter) led a fian of her own, and died from an illness when she was 35-ish. She was/is Caoilte’s partner and actually (unfortunately in her opinion) the statement about being the third best lover pertained to her. Somebody started the rumor that she, rather than Cormac’s daughter, was Fionn’s wife, presumably to try to appease her birth family: it failed miserably and caused a lot of unneeded drama. Ailbhe dealt with it as gracefully as possible: leading a nine of her own effectively put an end to the majority of the trouble. Seems like the two women’s stories were melded into one at some point, but as far as misconceptions go, that was a pretty benign one. 🙂


  14. Wonderful post Ali, it’s taken me a while to comment here but I read this post this morning and it totally made my day. 🙂 I didn’t know about some ofthe women you mentioned and loved learning something new. And you included everyone. 🙂


    • Warrior Women my royal Irish arse , it’s just psycho sexual Male fantasy manifested in mythology and then desperately grasped and exaggerated as actual real life fact for the delectation of PC millennials and assorted feminists. Anyone with the remotest grasp of logic and physics/biology would know that the idea of women pouting petulently whilst prancing about a battlefield is ludicrous beyond belief , but carry on with the good work as it seems to bring a little joy to the fantasy world of all concerned.


      • Haha! Thanks Bearwulf for your insightful, intelligent, considered and non-chauvinist comment, it was very entertaining! 😁


  15. Reblogged this on The Sound of What Happens and commented:
    A totally kickass blog post on warrior women in ancient Ireland, by the awesome Ali Isaac. Our ancestors lived by fierce loyalty as well as equality: we could learn a thing or two. What is remembered lives!


  16. Great post! Thanks for sharing your research. I write books based loosely on Irish mythology. Love those strong, feisty women!


  17. Interesting that rather than having discriminatory information or whatever there is just nothing. Very interesting indeed. Although, you said that in one breath and then gave us loads of different examples! Was Macha the one who did the chariot race and gave birth at the end?

    Also, fortress of shadows is a wicked cool name. Sorry, but that bad boy is getting stolen, along with the name Fomori! but you already knew I’d stolen Fomori!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Haha! Yes, knew about you fomori obsession. That Macha is a different one. I gave you a few examples, but it’s not really that many to go on, is it, when you think about it. Just a handful, not very many in the grand scheme of things.

      Liked by 1 person

  18. I love this, Ali. Not just the warrior women, but the cultural norms that perceived women as powers to be reckoned with. Male-warrior dominance is so prevalent in the world. It makes me wonder where and how it changed (Christianity? I don’t know). I’m enthralled with the rich Irish lore and history – the fertile grounds for fantasy 🙂


  19. You’d wonder how women could have become so relatively subservient here.
    Though it’s good we have had female presidents when places like the US haven’t!


  20. Reblogged this on mira prabhu and commented:
    “Irish mythology is riddled with powerful women, yet they are quite an enigma. On the one hand, we have feisty Queens like Medb, fearsome Goddesses like the Morrigan, gifted healers like Airmid, female smiths like Brigid, respected Druidesses like Bodhmall, and knowledgeable lawgivers like Brigid Brethach. On the other, we have the helpless heroines such as Etain, Deirdre, and Grainne, who seemingly did little but lure men with their beauty into tragedy and catastrophe.” Ali Isaac post fascinates me because I love warrior women (and, come to think of it, men! And children too!) Read on for more intriguing information…thank you Ali Isaac, and Chris Graham, for sharing!


  21. Thank you for an enlightening post, Ali. I shall reblog it on my site where I have a lot of stuff abut the later period, when the Norman’s were invited in and turned the place over. The problem I had trying to find out about Strongbow’s Wife was that the only “reliable” accounts were written or re-written by priests. Giraldus, in particular, wrote it all up as a member of the “victorious” Welsh/Norman clan.


    • Hi Frank, thank you for the reblog, appreciate it! Yes, I understand your frustration very well. Did you manage to find anything out about Mrs Strongbow at all in the end? Your experience of the priests’ writings is typical, I think. So many things which we consider important just didn’t fit into how they saw their world, and we rely on their accounts so much. If they chose not to record it, then unless we strike lucky and come across some obscure folk tale somewhere down the line, we’re completely stuck. Sadly. And yet, if they didn’t do what they did, we’d have nothing at all. So I’m grateful, but sometimes frustrated as well.


  22. You know that a woman could divorce her husband for neglecting his marital duties, paying too much attention to other women or men, but did you know she could divorce him for being fat? If a man let himself go and became a discredit to his wife it was grounds for divorce. Funny how in our enlightened Christian times, it’s only ever women who are accused of letting themselves go.

    Liked by 3 people

  23. Reblogged this on Smorgasbord – Variety is the spice of life and commented:
    Another fascinating post by Ali Isaac about Ancient Ireland and the Warrior Women.. Interesting that Ireland at that time gave women equal status in so many things until the priests came along (bless them all) and eradicated the stories of their strength and fortitude in the written word. Great article do head over and read.. especially those of us of Irish Descent… go mamas..

    Liked by 1 person

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